In the 1991 close season, a proposal for the establishment of a new league
was tabled that would bring more money into the game overall. The Founder
Members Agreement, signed on 17 July 1991 by the game's top-flight clubs,
established the basic principles for setting up the FA Premier League.
The newly formed top division would have commercial independence from the
Football Association and the Football League, giving the FA Premier League
license to negotiate its own broadcast and sponsorship agreements. This was
considered necessary so that English clubs could once again compete with and
beat the best of Europe, while attracting the best talent in the world,
something which in 1991 seemed practically unthinkable.
In 1992 the First Division clubs resigned from the Football League en
masse and on 27 May 1992 the FA Premier League was formed as a limited
company working out of an office at the then Football Association's headquarters
in Lancaster Gate.
This meant a break-up of the 104-year-old Football League that had operated
until then with four divisions; the Premier League would operate with a single
division and the Football League with three. There was no real change in
competition format; the same number of teams competed in the top flight, and
promotion and relegation between the Premier League and the new First Division
remained on the same terms as between the old First and Second Divisions.
As of 2007 there had been 15 completed seasons of the Premier League. The
league held its first season in 1992–93 and was originally composed of 22 clubs.
The first ever Premiership goal was scored by Brian Deane of Sheffield United in
a 2–1 win against Manchester United. Due to insistence by FIFA, the
international governing body of football, that domestic leagues reduce the
number of games clubs played, the number of clubs was reduced to 20 in 1995 when
four teams were relegated from the league and only two teams promoted. On 8 June
2006, FIFA requested that all major European leagues, including Italy's Serie A
and Spain's La Liga be reduced to 18 teams by the start of the 2007–08 season.
The Premier League responded by announcing their intention to resist such a
reduction. Ultimately the 2007–08
season kicked off again with 20 teams. The league changed its name from the
FA Premier League to simply the Premier League in 2007.
The Premier League is operated as a corporation and is owned by the 20 member
clubs. Each club is a shareholder, with one vote each on issues such as rule
changes and contracts. The clubs elect a Chairman, Chief Executive, and Board of
Directors to oversee the daily operations of the league.
The Football Association is not directly involved in the day-to-day operations
of the Premier League, but has veto power as a special shareholder during the
election of the Chairman and Chief Executive and when new rules are adopted by
The Premier League sends representatives to UEFA's European Club Forum, the
number of clubs and the clubs themselves chosen according to UEFA coefficients.
The European Club Forum is responsible for electing three members to UEFA's Club
Competitions Committee, which is involved in the operations of UEFA competitions
such as the Champions League and UEFA Cup.
Competition format and sponsorship
There are 20 clubs in the Premier League. During the course of a season,
which lasts from August to May, each club plays the others twice, once at their
home stadium and once at that of their opponents, for a total of 38 games. Teams
receive three points for a win and one point for a draw. No points are awarded
for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points, then goal difference, and then
goals scored. At the end of each season, the club with the most points is
crowned champion. If points are equal, the goal difference and then goals scored
determine the winner. If still equal, teams are deemed to occupy the same
position. If there is a tie for the championship, for relegation, or for
qualification to other competitions, a play-off match at a neutral venue decides
rank. The three lowest placed
teams are relegated into the Football League Championship and the top two teams
from the Championship, together with the winner of play-offs involving the third
to sixth placed Championship clubs, are promoted in their place.
Qualification for European competitions
The top four teams in the Premiership qualify for the UEFA Champions League,
with the top two teams directly entering the group phase. The third and fourth
placed teams enter the competition at the third qualifying round and must win a
two-legged knockout tie in order to enter the group phase. The fifth placed team
automatically qualifies for the UEFA Cup, and the sixth and seventh placed teams
can also qualify, depending on what happens in the two domestic cup
competitions. If the FA Cup winners and runners-up both finish in the top five
of the Premier League, the FA Cup's UEFA Cup spot goes to the sixth placed team
in the League. If the League Cup is won by a team that has already qualified for
Europe, the League Cup's UEFA Cup spot also goes to the next highest placed team
in the League (unlike the FA Cup spot, it is never transferred to the losing
finalist). The highest placed team
that has not qualified for the UEFA Cup is allowed the opportunity to compete in
the UEFA Intertoto Cup, provided they have applied to enter the Intertoto Cup in
the next season. This provides another means of getting into the UEFA Cup, as
winners of all eleven third-round Intertoto Cup ties qualify for that
An exception to the usual European qualification system happened in 2005,
when Liverpool won the UEFA Champions League, but did not finish in a Champions
League qualification position in that season's Premier League. UEFA gave special
dispensation for Liverpool to enter the Champions League, giving England five
qualifiers. UEFA subsequently
ruled that the defending champions of the trophy qualify for the competition the
following year regardless of their domestic league placing.
The Premiership was recently promoted to second in the UEFA rankings of
European leagues based on their performances in European competitions over a
five year period, behind Spain's La Liga and now above Italy's Serie A.
The top three leagues in Europe are currently allowed to enter four teams into
the Champions League. The UEFA president Michel Platini, had proposed taking one
place from the Premier League's quota, and allocating this place to the FA Cup
winners. This proposal though, was rejected in a vote at a UEFA Strategy Council
In the same meeting that Platini's suggestion that FA Cup winners should
qualify for the Champion's League rather than the UEFA Cup was rejected, it was
however agreed upon that the third-placed team in the Premier League would
receive automatic qualification for the group stages, rather than entry into the
Third Qualifying Round as at present.
Since 1993, the Premier League has been sponsored. The sponsor has been able
to determine the league's sponsorship name. The list below details who the
sponsors have been and what they called the competition:
- 1993–2001: Carling (FA Carling Premiership)
- 2001–2004: Barclaycard (Barclaycard Premiership)
- 2004–2010: Barclays (Barclays Premiership (2004–2007) then Barclays
Premier League (2007–2010))
The Premier League is the most lucrative football league in the world, with
total club revenues of over £1.4 billion in 2005–06 season according to
Deloitte, 40% above its nearest competitor: Italy's Serie A.
Revenues will increase to approximately £1.8 billion in the 2007–08 season,
when new media rights deals start. Based on November 2007 exchange rates, £1.8
billion converts to a gross annual league revenue of about US$3.7 billion. For
the past few seasons, the Premier League's gross revenue (£1.4bn) has been the
fourth highest for any sports league worldwide, behind the annual revenues of
the three most popular North American major sports leagues (the National
Football League, Major League Baseball and the National Basketball Association),
but ahead of the National Hockey League.
In terms of world football, the Premier League clubs are some of the richest
in the world. Deloitte, who annually release figures on club revenues through
its "Football Money League", listed eight Premier League clubs in the top 20 for
the 2005–06 season. No
other league has more than four clubs in this table, and while La Liga rivals
Real Madrid and F.C. Barcelona are currently ranked #1 and #2, no other Spanish
clubs are listed in the top 20. Premier League teams have dominated the list for
many years, and even topped the list for almost a decade until the 2004–05
season. After the Premier League's new TV deal comes into effect, the
league-wide increase in revenues is expected to increase the Premier League
clubs' standing in the list, and there is a possibility that a Premier League
club will be top of the list.
Another significant source of regular income for Premier League clubs remains
their revenue from stadium attendances, which, with the 2005–06 average
attendance of 34,364 for league matches, is the fourth highest of any domestic
professional sports league in the world, ahead of Serie A and La Liga, but
behind the German Bundesliga. This represents an increase of over 60% from the
average attendance of 21,126 recorded in the league's first season (1992–93).
However, during the 1992–93 season the capacities of most stadiums were reduced
as clubs replaced terraces with seats in order to meet the Taylor Report's
1994–95 deadline for all-seater stadiums.
The 2005–06 figure, however, is lower than the Premier League's record average
attendance of 35,464, set during the 2002–03 season.
Kingdom and Republic of Ireland
Television has played a major role in the history of the Premier League. The
money from television rights has been vital in helping to create excellence both
on and off the field. The League's decision to assign broadcasting rights to
BSkyB in 1992 was at the time a radical decision, but one that has paid off. At
the time pay television was an almost untested proposition in the UK market, as
was charging fans to watch live televised football. However, a combination of
Sky's strategy, the quality of Premier League football and the public's appetite
for the game has seen the value of the Premier League's TV rights soar.
The Premier League sells its television rights on a collective basis. This is
in contrast to some European Leagues, including Serie A and La Liga, in which
each club sells its rights individually, leading to a much higher share of the
total income going to the top few clubs. The money is divided into three parts:
half is divided equally between the clubs; one quarter is awarded on a merit
basis based on final league position, the top club getting twenty times as much
as the bottom club, and equal steps all the way down the table; the final
quarter is paid out as facilities fees for games that are shown on television,
with the top clubs generally receiving the largest shares of this. The income
from overseas rights is divided equally between the twenty clubs.
The first Sky television rights agreement was worth £191 million over five
seasons. The next contract,
negotiated to start from the 1997–98 season, rose to £670 million over four
seasons. The third contract
was a £1.024 billion deal with BSkyB for the three seasons from 2004–05 to
2006–07. The league brought in £320 million from the sale of its international
rights for the three-year period from 2004–05 to 2006–07. It sold the rights
itself on a territory-by-territory basis.
Sky's monopoly was broken from August 2006 when Setanta Sports was awarded
rights to show two out of the six packages of matches available. This occurred
following an insistence by the European Commission that exclusive rights should
not be sold to one television company. Sky and Setanta paid a total of £1.7
billion, a two-thirds increase which took many commentators by surprise as it
had been widely assumed that the value of the rights had levelled off following
many years of rapid growth. Setanta also hold rights to a live 3 pm match solely
for Republic of Ireland viewers. The BBC has retained the rights to show
highlights for the same three seasons (on Match of the Day) for £171.6
million, a 63% increase on the £105 million it paid for the previous three year
period. Radio Telefís Éireann
broadcast the highlights in Ireland. Sky and BT have agreed to jointly pay £84.3
million for delayed television rights to 242 games (that is the right to
broadcast them in full on television and over the internet) in most cases for a
period of 50 hours after 10 pm on matchday.
Overseas television rights fetched £625 million, nearly double the previous
contract. The total raised from
these deals is more than £2.7 billion, giving Premiership clubs an average media
income from league games of £45 million a year from 2007 to 2010. They also
receive smaller amounts from media rights for the domestic cups and in some
cases substantial amounts from media rights for European matches.
The TV rights agreement between the Premier League and Sky has faced
accusations of being a cartel, and a number of court cases have arisen as a
result. An investigation by the Office of Fair Trading in 2002 found BSkyB to be
dominant within the pay TV sports market, but concluded that there were
insufficient grounds for the claim that BSkyB had abused its dominant position.
In July 1999 the Premier League's method of selling rights collectively for all
member clubs was investigated by the UK Restrictive Practices Court, who
concluded that the agreement was not contrary to the public interest.
Promoted as "The Greatest Show On Earth", the Premier League is the world's
most popular and most watched sporting league, followed worldwide by over half a
billion people in 202 countries,
generally on networks owned and/or controlled by NewsCorp, which owns BSkyB and
thus the primary UK and Ireland TV rights. In the United States coverage is
shared between Fox Soccer Channel and Setanta Sports North America; NewsCorp
sometimes buy pitch-side advertising boards with the Fox Soccer Channel logo
replacing that of Sky.
The Premier League is particularly popular in Asia, where it is the most
widely distributed sports programme.
In the People's Republic of China, matches attract television audiences between
100 million and 360 million, more than any other foreign sport.
Due to this popularity, the league has held three pre-season tournaments in
Asia, the only Premier League affiliated tournaments ever to have been held
outside England. In July 2003, the FA Premier League Asia Cup was held in
Malaysia, featuring three Premiership clubs, Chelsea, Newcastle United and
Birmingham City, and the Malaysia national team.
In 2005 the Asia Trophy featured a similar format, held in Thailand and
featuring the Thailand national team competing against three English clubs —
Everton, Manchester City and Bolton Wanderers, the latter of whom won the
trophy. In 2007, the FA Premier
League Asia Cup took place in Hong Kong, to be renamed the Barclays Asia Trophy
and featured Liverpool, Portsmouth, Fulham and the Hong Kong FA Cup winning
team, South China.
The FA has faced difficulty fighting internet copyright infringement. In an
effort to stop the broadcasting of streams of live games on the net they have
hired NetResult, a company that specializes on protecting trademark rights
online. The BBC reported that NetResult, on behalf of the Premier League,
emailed a warning to 101greatgoals.blogspot.com, an independent website that
links to youtube videos, that forced its temporary closure.
gap between lower leagues
One of the main criticisms leveled at the Premier League is the increasing
gulf between the Premiership and the Football League. Since its split with the
Football League, many established clubs in the Premier League have managed to
distance themselves from their counterparts in lower leagues. Owing in large
part to the disparity in revenue from television rights between the leagues,
many newly promoted teams have found it difficult to avoid relegation in their
first season in the Premier League. In every season except 2001–02 (Blackburn
Rovers, Bolton Wanderers and Fulham) at least one Premier League newcomer has
been relegated back to the Football League. In 1997–98 all three promoted clubs
were relegated at the end of the season.
The Premier League distributes a small portion of its television revenue to
clubs that are relegated from the league in the form of "parachute payments".
Starting with the 2006–07 season, these payments are in the amount of £6.5
million over the club's first two seasons in lower leagues, although this is set
to rise to £11.2 million per year for clubs relegated in 2007–2008.
Designed to help teams adjust to the loss of television revenues (the average
Premier League team receives £45 million while the average Football League
Championship club receives £1 million),
critics maintain that the payments actually widen the gap between teams that
have reached the Premiership and those that have not,
leading to the common occurrence of teams "bouncing back" soon after their
Another major criticism is the development of the so-called, "Big Four"
clubs. In the past 12
seasons only three different clubs have won the Premier League title —
Manchester United (seven times), Arsenal (three times) and Chelsea (twice).
Blackburn Rovers are the only other team to have won the title in the Premier
League's history. In addition, Liverpool, while without an English league title
since the pre-Premier League era, have not finished lower than fifth since 1999,
and won the Champions League in 2005.
In recent years, the success of these clubs has led to these four teams being
increasingly referred to as the "Big Four". This developed with Chelsea's rise
in status after their takeover by Russian billionaire Roman Abramovich in 2003,
which has led to multiple league and cup successes. The Big Four clubs currently
receive the benefits of Champions League qualification. The benefits include
increased revenue and this has widened the gap between the Big Four clubs and
the rest of the Premiership.
A total of 40 clubs have played in the Premier League between 1992 and 2006.
Two other clubs (Luton Town and Notts County) were signatories to the original
agreement that created the Premier League, but were relegated prior to the
inaugural Premiership season and have not yet returned to the top flight. For a
list of all clubs past and present see List of FA Premier League clubs and an
amalgamated table can be found at All-time FA Premier League table. For a list
of winners and runners-up of the Premier League since its inception, and top
scorers for each season, see English football champions.
Seven clubs have been members of the Premiership for every season since its
inception. This group is composed of Arsenal, Aston Villa, Chelsea, Everton,
Liverpool, Manchester United, and Tottenham Hotspur.
Premier League clubs have almost complete freedom to sign whatever number and
category of players they wish. There is no team or individual salary cap, no
squad size limit, no age restrictions other than those applied by general
employment law, no restrictions on the overall number of foreign players, and
few restrictions on individual foreign players — all players with EU
nationality, including those able to claim an EU passport through a parent or
grandparent, are eligible to play, and top players from outside the EU are able
to obtain UK work permits. The only area where the Premiership's player
registration rules are more restrictive than those of some other football
leagues, such as those of those of Belgium and Portugal, is that academy level
non-EU players have little access to English football.
At the inception of the Premier League in 1992–93, just eleven players named
in the starting line-ups for the first round of matches were 'foreign' (players
hailing from outside of the United Kingdom or Republic of Ireland).
By 2000–01, the number of foreign players participating in the Premiership was
36%. In the 2004–05 season the figure had increased to 45%. On 26 December 1999,
Chelsea became the first Premier League side to field an entirely foreign
starting line-up, and on 14
February 2005 Arsenal were the first to name a completely foreign 16-man squad
for a match. No English manager
has won the Premier League; the four managers to have won the title comprise two
Scots (Sir Alex Ferguson (Manchester United, nine wins) and Kenny Dalglish
(Blackburn Rovers, one win)), a Frenchman (Arsène Wenger, Arsenal, three wins)
and a Portuguese (José Mourinho, Chelsea, two wins).
In response to concerns that clubs were increasingly passing over young
British players in favour of signing less-expensive foreign players, in 1999,
the Home Office tightened its rules for granting work permits to players from
countries outside of the European Union.
Currently a non-EU player applying for the permit must have played for his
country in at least 75% of its competitive 'A' team matches for which he was
available for selection during the previous two years, and his country must have
averaged at least 70th place in the official FIFA world rankings over the
previous two years. If a player does not meet those criteria, the club wishing
to sign him may appeal if they believe that he is a special talent and "able to
contribute significantly to the development of the game at the top level in the
Over 260 foreign players compete in the league, and 101 players from
England's domestic leagues competed in the 2002 FIFA World Cup in Korea and
Japan. At the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany, the Premier League was the most
represented league with more than eighty players in the competition, including
21 of the 23 players in England's squad.
As a result of the increasingly lucrative television deals, player wages rose
sharply following the formation of the Premier League. In the first Premier
League season the average player wage was £75,000 per year,
but subsequently rose by an average 20% per year for a decade,
peaking in the 2003–04 season, when the annual salary of the average Premier
League player was £676,000.
The record transfer fee for a Premier League has been broken several times
over the lifetime of the competition. Prior to the start of the first Premier
League season Alan Shearer became the first British player to command a £3
million-plus transfer fee.
The record rose steadily in the Premier League's first few seasons, until Alan
Shearer made a world record breaking £15 million move to Newcastle United in
1996. This stood as a
British record for four years until it was eclipsed by the £18 million Leeds
paid West Ham for Rio Ferdinand.
Manchester United subsequently broke the record three times by signing Ruud van
Nistelrooy, Juan Sebastián Verón and Rio Ferdinand.
As of 2007, the current record holder is Andriy Shevchenko, who joined Chelsea
from AC Milan in May 2006. The exact figure of the transfer fee was not
disclosed, but was reported as being around £30 million.
Players in the Premier League can compete for the informal competitions of
Goal of the Month and Goal of the Season. Other titles players compete for
include the top-scorer for a season. Former Blackburn Rovers and Newcastle
United striker Alan Shearer holds the record for most Premiership goals with
260. Shearer finished among the top ten goal scorers in 10 out of his 14 seasons
in the Premier League and won the top scorer title three times. During the
1995–96 season he became the first player to score 100 Premier League goals.
Since the first Premier League season in 1992–93, 11 different players have
won or shared the top scorers title. Thierry Henry won his third consecutive and
fourth overall scoring title by scoring 27 goals in the 2005–06 season. This
surpassed Shearer's mark of three titles which he won consecutively from 1994–95
through 1996–97. Other multiple winners include Michael Owen and Jimmy Floyd
Hasselbaink who have won two titles each. Andrew Cole and Alan Shearer hold the
record for most goals in a season (34) — for Newcastle United and Blackburn
Rovers respectively. Cole's record came in the 1993–94 season, while Shearer's
came in 1994–95, both of which were 42-game seasons. Shearer's mark of 31 goals
in 1995–96 remains the highest total in a 38-game season.
Manchester United became the first team to have scored 1,000 goals in this
league after Cristiano Ronaldo scored, in a 4–1 defeat by Middlesbrough, in the
2005–06 season, having been the first team to have conceded a Premiership goal
following the League's inception. Arsenal are the only other team to have
reached the 1,000 goal mark. The highest-scoring match to date in the
Premiership occurred on 29 September 2007 when Portsmouth defeated Reading 7–4.
At the close of the 2006–07 season, only two players held the prestige of
having scored in each of the 15 Premiership competitions. These were Bolton
Wanderers player/coach Gary Speed and Manchester United veteran Ryan Giggs, both
former captains of the Wales national football team.
Both players have scored in the 2007–08 season too.
Women's Premier League
The National Division of the FA Women's Premier League is the Premiership's
female counterpart. Most of its clubs are affiliated with Premiership and
Football League sides; however, teams are semi-professional; no professional
teams have existed since Fulham returned to semi-pro status in 2003.
The league comprises 12 clubs, operating a system of promotion and relegation
with the Northern Division and Southern Division. The champions of each are
promoted to the National Division, and the bottom two National Division clubs
Since forming in 1993 the Women's Premier League has been dominated by
Arsenal, who have won nine of the fifteen league titles.
The women's game has a much lower profile than that of the Premier League, with
Women's Premier League teams typically playing matches at grounds owned by
non-league men's clubs.
cool Henry !! I'll be always your supporter ;-)
I really think that Henry is a superb player full of skill but
as a fellow friend said below, we had enough of him scoring against Manchester
united. its good he went to Barça where perhaps he will do a lot better! Arjun
im glad henry went to barca, i had enough of him scoring
Henry for the President of Haiti.
HENRY is the best player, and like diamond I love the way he
shines. TOHUN NIGERIA
i think jt is gd sometimes but 4 england he shd not b da
captain ellzy and adz from looe,corwall
Henry is the skillest,the coolest player in the world.henry
should be knighted by the queen for being the best footballer and his name would
be sir Thierry Henry.henry is the best u heard that from rasheed
henry is the best
Yet again you have fell into the trap of sky tv thinking that
all time top scorers only count in the premier league!!!!! Put the ALL TIME top
scorers on which goes a lot longer back than a few years!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!