Computers & Technology


Table of keyboard shortcuts

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In computing, a keyboard shortcut is any of various finite sequences of input on an input device which, when activated, cause a command or function to be invoked by software or the operating system on a computer. Keyboard shortcuts are typically an alternate means for invoking one or more commands that would otherwise be accessible only through navigating one or more levels of a user interface or command console.

Some keyboard shortcuts require the user to press a single key or a sequence of keys one after the other. Other keyboard shortcuts require pressing and holding several keys simultaneously.



Desktop shortcuts

Action Windows XP/Windows Vista Mac OS
Activate Menu bar Alt, or F10 Ctrl+F2
File menu Alt+F  
Edit menu Alt+E  
View menu Alt+V  
Undo the last operation Ctrl+Z ⌘ Cmd+Z
Redo the last operation Ctrl+Y ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+Z
Cut the selected area and store it in the clipboard Ctrl+X, or ⇧ Shift+Del ⌘ Cmd+X
Copy the selected area into the clipboard Ctrl+C, or Ctrl+Ins ⌘ Cmd+C
Paste contents of clipboard at cursor Ctrl+V, or ⇧ Shift+Ins ⌘ Cmd+V
Paste special Ctrl+Alt+V  
Select everything in focused control or window Ctrl+A ⌘ Cmd+A


Text editing

Many of these commands may be combined with ⇧ Shift to select a region of text.

Action Windows XP/Windows Vista Mac OS
start of line Home ⌘ Cmd+←
end of line End ⌘ Cmd+→
start of document Ctrl + Home Home (scroll only, cursor not moved)
end of document Ctrl + End End (scroll only, cursor not moved)
previous word Ctrl+← ⌥ Opt+←
next word Ctrl+→ ⌥ Opt+→
previous line break Ctrl+↑ ⌥ Opt+↑
next line break Ctrl+↓ ⌥ Opt+↓


Web browsers

Action Windows XP/Windows Vista Mac OS
Bookmarks menu Alt+B ⌘ Cmd+⌥ Opt+B
Add a bookmark for the current location Ctrl+D ⌘ Cmd+D
Manage bookmarks Ctrl+B ⌘ Cmd+⌥ Opt+B (Safari)
Reload page from cache F5, or Ctrl+R ⌘ Cmd+R
Reload page bypassing cache Ctrl+F5, or Ctrl+⇧ Shift+R ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+R


Go menu

Action Windows XP/Windows Vista Mac OS
Go to Browser   ⌘ Cmd+L
Go to the previous location in history Alt+← or ← Backspace(Internet Explorer) ⌘ Cmd+[ or ⌘ Cmd+←
Go to the next location in history Alt+→ ⌘ Cmd+] or ⌘ Cmd+→
Go up one level in the navigation hierarchy Alt+↑(Vista only) or ← Backspace(Windows Explorer) ⌘ Cmd+↑
Go to the starting page defined by the user or application Alt+Home ⌘ Cmd+Home
Go back a page   ⌘ Cmd+{


Text formatting

Action Windows XP/Windows Vista Mac OS
Make selected text bold/regular Ctrl+B ⌘ Cmd+B
Toggle underlining of selected text Ctrl+U ⌘ Cmd+U
Make selected text italic/regular Ctrl+I ⌘ Cmd+I
Change to upper/lower case ⇧ Shift+F3 ⌥ Opt+⌘ Cmd+C
Make selected text superscript Ctrl+⇧ Shift++  
Make selected text subscript Ctrl++  


Window management

Action Windows XP/Windows Vista Mac OS
Switch to next/previous focused window Alt+Tab ⇆ /

⇧ Shift+Alt+Tab ⇆

⌘ Cmd+Tab ⇆ /

⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+Tab ⇆

Switch focus to the next/previous window (without dialog) Alt+Esc /

⇧ Shift+Alt+Esc

Ctrl+F4 or ⌘ Cmd+`
Pop up window menu Alt+Space  
Close the focused window Alt+F4 or Ctrl+F4 or Alt+Space then C or Ctrl + W ⌘ Cmd+W
Move the focused window Alt+Space then M then Arrow Keys  
Resize the focused window Alt+Space then S then Arrow Keys  
Minimize the focused window Alt+Space then N ⌘ Cmd+M
Maximize the focused window Alt+Space then X  
Minimize all Win+M ⌘ Cmd+Alt+M
Undo minimize all ⇧ Shift+Win+M  
Switch fullscreen/normal size F11  
Rollup/down window   ⌘ Cmd+M
Move window to left/right/up/down workspace win+ctrl+arrow keys  
Switch to next/previous desktop   Ctrl+Right /

Ctrl+Left (Leopard)

Show / hide desktop Win+D F11
Kill window Alt+F4 or Ctrl+F4 varies [2] ⌘ Cmd+Q [3]
Close dialog Esc Esc


Desktop navigation

Action Windows XP/Windows Vista Mac OS
Run new application Win+R  
Open new browser window with same page as current Ctrl+N ⌘ Cmd+N (Non-default user option in Safari)
Start menu / Applications menu Win or Ctrl+Esc ⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+A
Copy a screenshot to clipboard Print Screen or Ctrl+Print Screen ⌘ Cmd+Ctrl+⇧ Shift+3 (⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+3 to create as a file on the desktop)
Copy a screenshot of window to clipboard Alt+Print Screen ⌘ Cmd+Ctrl+⇧ Shift+4 then Space (⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+4 to create as a file on the desktop)
Lock desktop Win+L or Ctrl+Alt+Space  
Show desktop Win+D F11
Switch active user Win+L [4]  
Task manager Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Esc, Ctrl+Alt+Delete[5] ⌘ Cmd+⌥ Opt+Esc
Rename file F2 ↵ Enter


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