The Loch Ness Monster
is a cryptid, claimed to inhabit Scotland's Loch
Ness, the most voluminous freshwater lake in Great Britain.
Nessie at the Loch Ness Monster Visitor Centre in
Along with Bigfoot and the Yeti, the Loch Ness Monster is one of the
best-known mysteries of cryptozoology. Belief in the legend persists around the
world. Local people, and later many around the world, have affectionately
referred to the animal by the diminutive of Nessie (Scottish Gaelic: "Niseag").
Description of Nessie
Many explanations have been postulated over the years to describe what kind
of animal the Loch Ness Monster might be:
The most common eyewitness description of Nessie, is that of a plesiosaur, a
long-necked aquatic reptile that became extinct during the Cretaceous-Tertiary
extinction event. Supporters of the plesiosaur theory cite the survival of a
fish called the coelacanth, which supposedly went extinct along with the
plesiosaur but was rediscovered off the coast of Madagascar in 1938.
On the other hand, mainstream science does offer plausible reasons why such
an animal could not exist in Loch Ness. Apart from its apparent extinction, the
plesiosaur was probably a cold-blooded reptile requiring warm tropical waters,
while the average temperature of Loch Ness is only about 5.5°C (42°F). Even if
the plesiosaurs were warm-blooded, they would require a food supply beyond that
of Loch Ness to maintain the level of activity necessary for warm-blooded
Moreover, there is no substantive evidence in the bone structure of
fossilised plesiosaurs that indicate sonar capability (similar to that possessed
by dolphins and whales). Such a system would be necessary in the loch, as
visibility is limited to less than 15 feet due to a high peat concentration in
the loch. Consequently, sunlight does not deeply penetrate the water, limiting
the amount of photosynthetic algae, thereby reducing the number of plankton and
fish in the food chain. Fossil evidence indicates plesiosaurs were sight
hunters; it is unlikely that the loch's peat-stained water would allow such
animals to hunt the limited food supply at sufficient levels.
In October 2006, Leslie Noè of the Sedgwick Museum in Cambridge pointed out
that, "The osteology of the neck makes it absolutely certain that the plesiosaur
could not lift its head up swan-like out of the water", precluding the
possibility that Nessie is a plesiosaur. 
Comment "how do you know that. I think the lochness is real. haha"
Have your say
According to the Swedish naturalist and author Bengt Sjögren (1980), present
day beliefs in loch monsters such as "Nessie" are associated with the old
legends of kelpies. He claims that the accounts of loch monsters have changed
over the ages, originally describing a horse appearance, they claimed that the
"kelpie" would come out of the lake and turn into a horse. When a tired
traveller would get on the back of the kelpie, it would gallop into the loch and
devour its prey. This myth successfully kept children away from the loch, as was
its purpose. Sjögren concludes that the kelpie legends have developed into more
plausible descriptions of lake monsters, reflecting awareness of plesiosaurs. In
other words, the kelpie of folklore has been transformed into a more "realistic"
and "contemporary" notion of the creature. Believers counter that long-dead
witnesses could only compare the creature to that which they were familiar --
and were not familiar with plesiosaurs.
Is the loch ness monster real ?
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Peter Costello posed the theory that Nessie and other reputed lake monsters
were actually an unknown species of long-necked seal. This theory is supported
by several sightings of the monster on land, during which the creature
supposedly waddled into the loch upon being startled, in the manner of seals.
However, all known species of pinnipeds are usually visible on land during
daylight hours to sunbathe ,
something that Nessie was never known to do.
A theory presented by Neil Clark, the curator of paleontology at the
Hunterian Museum in Glasgow has suggested that Nessie could merely be a swimming
elephant, as there was a travelling circus passing through the area during the
heyday of the sightings. Bertram
Mills used to take his circus to Inverness, Scotland. When they passed Loch Ness
the circus would stop to allow the animals to rest and bath. When the elephants
were allowed to swim in the Loch, "only the trunk and two humps could be seen:
the first hump being the top of the head and the second being the back of the
animal." When the
Loch Ness Monster story broke Bertram Mills offered a £20,000 reward, £1 million
in today’s money, to anyone who could catch the monster the reward was a huge
risk unless you knew that no such monster existed and any media reports of
reward would be great publicity for your circus.
Some have theorized that "Nessie" may be a large eel. Some believe that an
eel might have grossly enlarged in order to eat the bigger fish, or that a
larger eel species inhabits the loch. But an eel could not protrude swanlike
from the water as described in various sightings.
Some theorists attribute the monster sightings to large pike (Esox lucius)
, sturgeon, dolphins, a surviving
(as in "The Spray Photograph"), otters, birds, and large molluscs (such as a
large cephalopod) or giant nematodes.
In a 1982 series of articles for New Scientist, Dr Maurice Burton
proposed that sightings of Nessie and similar creatures could actually be
fermenting logs of Scots pine rising to the surface of the loch's cold waters.
Initially, a rotting log could not release gases caused by decay, because of
high levels of resin sealing in the gas. Eventually, the gas pressure would
rupture a resin seal at one end of the log, propelling it through the water --
and sometimes to the surface. Burton claimed that the shape of tree logs with
their attendant branch stumps closely resemble various descriptions of the
Four Scottish lochs are very deep, including Morar, Ness and Lomond. But not
all lochs have monster legends; the lochs with pinewoods on their shores have
the legends, but Loch Lomond -- the one with no pinewoods -- does not. Gaseous
emissions and surfactants resulting from the decay of the logs can cause the
foamy wake reported in some sightings. Indeed, beached pine logs showing
evidence of deep-water fermentation have been found. On the other hand, there
are believers who assert that some lakes do have reports of monsters, despite an
absence of pinewoods. (A notable example would be the Irish lough monsters).
Seiches and boat wakes
Loch Ness, because of its long, straight shape, is subject to some unusual
occurrences affecting its surface. A seiche is a large, regular
oscillation of a lake, caused by a water reverting to its natural level after
being blown to one end of the lake. The impetus from this reversion continues to
the lake's windward end and then reverts back. In Loch Ness, the process occurs
every 31.5 minutes .
Boat wakes can also produce strange effects in the loch. As a wake
spreads and divides from a boat passing the centre of the loch, it hits both
sides almost simultaneously and deflects back to meet again in the middle. The
movements interact to produce standing waves that are much larger than the
original wake, and can have a humped appearance. By the time this occurs, the
boat has passed and the unusual waves are all that can be seen.
However, there are wake sightings which appear to contradict the theory, as
there are wakes that occur when the loch is dead calm with no boat nearby. A
bartender named David Munro claims to have witnessed a wake which he believed to
be a creature zigzagging, diving and reappearing. (There were 26 other witnesses
from a nearby car park). ).
Some sightings describe the onset of a V-shaped wake, as if there were something
underwater . Moreover, many
wake sightings describe something not conforming to the shape of a boat.
History of alleged sightings
Rumours of a huge animal living in the loch have existed for centuries. Some
believers have argued that a lengthy history of monster sightings in the loch
provides ample circumstantial evidence of the creature's existence.,
no original 1871 source for this report has been discovered, indicating that it
may be an invention.
Others question the accuracy of such tales, and argue that they were generally
unknown before the early 1960s when a strong wave of interest focused on the
first clear examples of Nessie sightings in the 1930s.
For example, an alleged sighting in October 1871 by a "D. Mackenzie", who
supposedly described seeing something that moved slowly before moving off at a
faster speed, has been repeated in several places
There have been far too many sightings to list in a single article. Many were
questionable because of distance or other poor conditions; some sightings are
cases of misidentified deer or boat wakes, and of course, there have been
several hoaxes. There are some sightings, however, which cannot be easily
Saint Columba (565)
The earliest known report occurred in the Life of St. Columba by
Adamnan, written around the 7th century. It describes how in 565 Columba saved
the life of a Pict, who was being supposedly attacked by the monster. Adamnan
describes the event as follows:
"...(He) raised his holy hand, while all the rest, brethren as well as
strangers, were stupefied with terror, and, invoking the name of God, formed the
saving sign of the cross in the air, and commanded the ferocious monster,
saying, "Thou shalt go no further, nor touch the man; go back with all speed."
Then at the voice of the saint, the monster was terrified, and fled more quickly
than if it had been pulled back with ropes, though it had just got so near to
Lugne, as he swam, that there was not more than the length of a spear-staff
between the man and the beast. Then the brethren seeing that the monster had
gone back, and that their comrade Lugne returned to them in the boat safe and
sound, were struck with admiration, and gave glory to God in the blessed man.
And even the barbarous heathens, who were present, were forced by the greatness
of this miracle, which they had seen, to magnify the God of the Christians".
Skeptics question the reliability of the Life of St. Columba as
evidence for the Loch Ness Monster's existence, noting that the book describes
implausible events, such as an incident when Columba slays a wild boar by the
power of his voice alone. They argue that the monster encounter is said to have
occurred on the River Ness, not in the Loch, and that Adamnan reports Columba
encountering and conquering assorted "monsters" at various locations in
Scotland, throughout his life. Moreover, sceptics assert that there are no other
accounts of the Loch Ness monster attacking anyone, as the creature is normally
portrayed as shy. In fact, biographies of the early saints were often
embellished or invented for purposes of religious persuasion rather than
Although sightings of the creature on land around the loch reputedly date
back to the sixteenth century,
modern interest in the monster was sparked by a 22 July 1933 sighting, when Mr
George Spicer and his wife saw 'a most extraordinary form of animal' cross the
road in front of their car. They described the creature as having a large body
(about 4 feet high and 25 feet long), and long, narrow neck, slightly thicker
than an elephant's trunk and as long as the 10-12 foot width of the road; the
neck had a number of undulations in it. They saw no limbs because of a dip in
the road obscuring the animal's lower portion. It lurched across the road
towards the loch some 20 yards away, leaving only a trail of broken undergrowth
in its wake. 
On 5 January 1934 a motorcyclist called Arthur Grant claimed to have nearly
hit the creature while approaching Abriachan on the northeastern shore, at about
1 am on a moonlit night. Grant saw a small head attached to a long neck; the
creature saw him and crossed the road back into the loch. Grant dismounted and
followed it to the loch, but only saw ripples where it had entered.
However some believe this was only a joke to a friend of Grant.
In another 1934 sighting, a young maidservant named Margaret Munro supposedly
observed the creature for about 20 minutes. It was about 6:30 am on 5 June, when
she spotted it on shore from about 200 yards. She described it as having
elephant-like skin, a long neck, a small head and two short forelegs or
flippers. The sighting ended when the creature reentered the water.
Sporadic land sightings continued until 1963, when a poor-quality film of the
creature was made from a distance of several miles.
Sightings in the loch
In May 1943, CB Farrel of the Royal Observer Corps was supposedly distracted
from his duties by a Nessie sighting. He was about 250 yards away from a
large-eyed, 'finned' creature, which had a 20-30 foot long body, and a neck that
protruded about 4-5 feet out of the water.
In December 1954 a strange sonar contact was made by the fishing boat
Rival III. The vessel's crew observed sonar readings of a large object
keeping pace with the boat at a depth of 480 feet. It was detected travelling
for half a mile in this manner, before contact was lost.
Three sightings in one night
On June 17, 1993, Edna MacInnes and David Mackay, both of Inverness,
reportedly saw the monster which they described as forty feet long, pale brown,
and with a long neck held high above the water.
. After swimming along
the surface, it sank into the water. Although the monster was a mile from the
shore, MacInnes claimed to have run along the shore to keep up with it.
"I was scared when the wash from its wake lapped on the shore, but I just kept
running behind it. By the time it plunged below the surface I was running as
fast as I could go," She added. Forty minutes later they saw it again, and
Mackay attempted to take a photograph, but only managed to get a picture of its
Later the same evening it was reportedly seen by James MacIntosh of Inverness
along with his son James .
Young James saw it first, saying "Dad, that's not a boat
." They described a pale
brown, long-necked creature heading away from shore
The final sighting of the night was reported by Lorraine Davidson, who saw a
large wake in the loch, when no boats were visible for miles. The wake appeared
to be different from a typical boat wake, in a manner not described in the
Photographs and films
The 'Surgeon's Photo'
One of the most iconic images of Nessie is known as the 'Surgeon's
Photograph' which many consider to be good evidence of the monster, although
doubts about the photograph's authenticity were expressed from the beginning.
The image was revealed as a hoax in the 1990s.
The photographer, a gynecologist named Robert Kenneth Wilson, never claimed it
to be a picture of the monster. He merely claimed to have photographed
"something in the water". The photo is often cropped to make the monster seem
huge, while the original uncropped shot shows the other end of the loch and the
monster in the centre . The
ripples on the photo fit the size and circular pattern of small ripples as
opposed to large waves when photographed up close. Skeptics in the 1980s argued
the photo was that of an otter or a diving bird, but after Christian Spurling's
confession agree it was what Spurling claimed - a toy submarine with a sculpted
Analyses of the original uncropped image have fostered further doubt. Just a
year before the hoax was revealed, the makers of Discovery Communications's
documentary Loch Ness Discovered did an analysis of the uncropped image
and found a white object evident in every version of the photo, implying that it
was on the negative. "It seems to be the source of ripples in the water, almost
as if the object was towed by something", the narrator said. "But science cannot
rule out it was just a blemish on the negative," he continued. Additionally,
analysis of the full photograph revealed the object to be quite small, only
about two to three feet long.
Spurling was the son-in-law of Marmaduke Wetherell, a big game hunter who was
deceived into searching for the storied Loch Ness monster based on evidence
which turned out to be a children's prank. Wetherell was publicly ridiculed in
the Daily Mail, the journal which employed him. Spurling claimed that to
get revenge, Marmaduke Wetherell committed the hoax, with the help of Chris
Spurling (a sculpture specialist), his son Ian Marmaduke, who bought the
material for the fake Nessie, and Maurice Chambers (an insurance agent), who
would call to ask surgeon Robert Kenneth Wilson to display the pictures. Some
doubt Spurling's confession because of the involvement of several people not
connected to Wilson.
Plesiosaurs, by Heinrich Harder, 1916.
Believers are not discouraged by the fact that this is a hoax. In fact, one
of the researchers who actually uncovered the hoax is sure the monster is real.
Alastair Boyd saw small moving disturbance that went up and down, doing a turn
underwater. The he told his wife Susan about it and they both saw a huge hump,
just static in the water. They tried to get a camera but the hump sunk into the
water. Boyd is sure what he saw was a living creature.
The Taylor film (1938)
In 1938 Mr GE Taylor, a South African tourist, filmed something in the loch
for three minutes on 16mm colour film, which is now in the possession of Dr.
Maurice Burton. However, Dr. Burton has refused to show the film to Loch Ness
investigators (such as Peter Costello or the Loch Ness Investigation Bureau). A
single frame was published in his book The Elusive Monster; before he
retired. Dr. Roy P Mackal, a respected biologist and cryptozoologist, declared
the frame to be "positive evidence." (Janet and Colin Bord, 'Alien Animals'
(Granada 1986) p18)
The Dinsdale film (1960)
In 1960, aeronautical engineer Tim Dinsdale filmed a hump crossing the water
in a powerful wake unlike that of a boat . JARIC declared that the object was
"probably animate". Others were
sceptical, saying that the "hump" cannot be ruled out as being a boat
 and claimed that when the
contrast is turned up too high a man can be clearly seen in a boat
In 1993 Discovery Communications made a documentary called Loch Ness
Discovered that featured a digital enhancement of the Dinsdale film. A
computer expert who enhanced the film noticed a shadow in the negative which was
not very obvious in the positive. By enhancing and overlaying frames, he found
what appeared to be the rear body, the rear flippers, and 1-2 additional humps
of a plesiosaur-like body. He said that: "Before I saw the film, I thought the
Loch Ness Monster was a load of rubbish. Having done the enhancement, I'm not so
sure".  Some have
countered this finding by saying that the angle of the film from the horizontal
along with sun's angle on that day made shadows underwater unlikely
. Believers (and some nonbelievers)
claim the shape could have been undisturbed water that was only coincidentally
shaped like a plesiosaur's rear end
. But the same source also says that there might be a smaller object
(hump or head) in front of the hump causing this
. Nonetheless, the
enhancement did show a smaller second hump and possibly a third hump.
The Holmes video (2007)
On May 26, 2007, Gordon Holmes, a 55-year-old lab technician, captured video
of what he said was "this jet black thing, about 45 feet long, moving fairly
fast in the water." Adrian Shine, a marine biologist at the Loch Ness 2000
center in Drumnadrochit, has watched the video and plans to analyze it. It is
said to be "among the finest footage ever taken".
BBC Scotland broadcast the video on May 29, 2007.
Holmes's credibilty has been doubted by an article on the Cryptomundo
website, which states that he has
a history of reporting sightings of cryptozoological creatures, and sells a
self-published book and DVD claiming evidence for fairies. His video has no
other objects by which to discern size,,
and is considered useless in some quarters.
Searches for the monster
The LNPIB sonar study (1967-8)
Professor DG Tucker, chairman of the Department of Electronic and Electrical
Engineering at the University of Birmingham, England, volunteered his services
as a sonar developer and expert at Loch Ness in 1968. The gesture was part of a
larger effort helmed by the Loch Ness Phenomena Investigation Bureau (LNPIB)
from 1967-1968 and involved collaboration between volunteers and professionals
in various fields. Tucker had chosen Ness as the test site for a prototype sonar
transducer with a maximum range of 800 meters. The device was fixed underwater
at Temple Pier in Urquhart Bay and directed towards the opposite shore,
effectively drawing an acoustic 'net' across the width of Ness through which no
moving object could pass undetected. During the two-week trial in August,
multiple animate targets six meters (20 ft) in length were identified ascending
from and diving to the loch bottom. Analysis of diving profiles ruled out
air-breathers because the targets never surfaced or moved shallower than
midwater. A brief press release by LNPIB and associates touched on the sonar
data and drew to a close the 1968 effort:
“The answer to the question of whether or not unusual phenomena exist in Loch
Ness, Scotland, and if so, what their nature might be, was advanced a step
forward during 1968, as a result of sonar experiments conducted by a team of
scientists under the direction of D. Gordon Tucker... Professor Tucker reported
that his fixed beam sonar made contact with large moving objects sometimes
reaching speeds of at least 10 knots. He concluded that the objects are clearly
animals and ruled out the possibility that they could be ordinary fish. He
stated: "The high rate of ascent and descent makes it seem very unlikely that
they could be fish, and fishery biologists we have consulted cannot suggest what
fish they might be. It is a temptation to suppose they might be the fabulous
Loch Ness monsters, now observed for the first time in their underwater
Andrew Carroll's sonar study (1969)
In 1969 Andrew Carroll, field researcher for the New York Aquarium in New
York City, proposed a mobile sonar scan operation at Loch Ness. The project was
funded by the Griffis foundation (named for Nixon Griffis, then a director of
the aquarium). This was the tail-end (and most successful portion) of the
LNPIB's 1969 effort involving submersibles with biopsy harpoons. The trawling
scan, in Carroll's research launch Rangitea, took place in October. One
sweep of the loch made contact with a strong, animate echo for nearly three
minutes just north of Foyers. The identity of the contact remains a mystery.
Later analysis determined that the intensity of the returning echo was twice as
great as that expected from a 10 foot pilot whale. Calculations placed the
contact's length at 20 feet.
Earlier submersible work had yielded dismal results. Under the sponsorship of
World Book Encyclopedia, pilot Dan Taylor deployed the Viperfish at Loch
Ness on 1 June 1969. His dives were plagued by technical problems and produced
no new data. The Deep Star III built by General Dynamics and an unnamed
two-man submersible built by Westinghouse were slated to sail but never did. It
was only when the Pisces arrived at Ness that the LNPIB obtained new
data. Owned by Vickers, Ltd., the submersible had been rented out to produce a
Sherlock Holmes film featuring a dummy Loch Ness Monster. When the dummy monster
broke loose from the Pisces during filming and sank to the bottom of the
loch, Vickers executives capitalized on the loss and 'monster fever' by allowing
the sub to do a bit of exploring. During one of these excursions, the Pisces
picked up a large moving object on sonar 200 feet ahead and 50 feet above the
bottom of the loch. Slowly the pilot closed to half that distance but the echo
moved rapidly out of sonar range and disappeared.
The Big Expedition of 1970
During the so-called "Big Expedition" of 1970, Roy Mackal, a biologist who
taught for 20 years at the University of Chicago, devised a system of
hydrophones (underwater microphones) and deployed them at intervals throughout
the loch. In early August a hydrophone assembly was lowered into Urquhart Bay
and anchored in 700 feet of water. Two hydrophones were secured at depths of 300
and 600 feet. After two nights of recording, the tape (sealed inside a 55 gallon
steel drum along with the system's other sensitive components) was retrieved and
played before an excited LNPIB. "Bird-like chirps" had been recorded, and the
intensity of the chirps on the deep hydrophone suggested they had been produced
at greater depth. In October "knocks" and "clicks" were recorded by another
hydrophone in Urquhart Bay, indicative of echolocation. These sounds were
followed by a "turbulent swishing" suggestive of the tail locomotion of a large
aquatic animal. The knocks, clicks and resultant swishing were believed to be
the sounds of an animal echolocating prey before moving in for the kill. The
noises stopped whenever craft passed along the surface of the loch near the
hydrophone -- and resumed once the craft reached a safe distance. In previous
experiments, it was observed that call intensities were greatest at depths less
than 100 feet. Members of the LNPIB decided to attempt communication with the
animals producing the calls by playing back previously recorded calls into the
water and listening via hydrophone for results, which varied greatly. At times
the calling patterns or intensities changed, but sometimes there was no change
at all. Mackal noted that there was no similarity between the recordings and the
hundreds of known sounds produced by aquatic animals. "More specifically," he
said, "competent authorities state that none of the known forms of life in the
loch has the anatomical capabilities of producing such calls."
Robert Rines's studies (1972, 1975 and 2001)
In the early 1970s, a group of people led by Robert Rines obtained some
underwater photographs. One was a vague image, perhaps of a rhomboid flipper
(though others have dismissed the image as air bubbles or a fish fin). On the
basis of this photograph, British naturalist Peter Scott announced in 1975 that
the scientific name of the monster would henceforth be Nessiteras
(Greek for "The Ness monster with diamond-shaped fin"). This would enable Nessie
to be added to a British register of officially protected wildlife (but compare
). Scottish politician Nicholas
Fairbairn soon revealed that the name was an anagram for "Monster hoax by Sir
The underwater photos were reportedly obtained by painstakingly sonaring the
loch depths for unusual underwater activity. A submersible camera with an
affixed, high-powered light (necessary for penetrating Loch Ness' notorious
murk) was deployed to record images below the surface. Several of the
photographs, despite their obviously murky quality, did indeed seem to show an
animal resembling a plesiosaur in various positions and lightings. One
photograph appeared to show the head, neck and upper torso of a plesiosaur
. (Close examination would show a
specific head shape and even an eye). Another photo seemed to depict a "gargoyle
head", which was later found to be a tree stump during Operation Deepscan.
A few closeups of what is to be the creature's supposed diamond-shaped fin
were taken in different positions, as though the creature were moving. But the
"flipper photograph" has been highly retouched from the original image. The
Museum of Hoaxes
shows the original unenhanced photo. Charlie Wyckoff claimed that someone
retouched the photo to superimpose the flipper, and that the original
enhancement showed a much smaller flipper. No one is exactly sure how the
original came to be enhanced in this way.
In 2001, the Academy of Applied Science, known for Robert Rines' photographs,
videoed a powerful V-shaped wake traversing the still water on a calm day
. Seashells were dated since
the Ice Age and proved that the Loch was connected to the sea. Small orange,
mushroom-like organisms were also found, never known by science. They also found
what looked like a decaying carcass of an animal .
Discovery Loch Ness (1993)
In 1993 Discovery Communications began to research the ecology of the loch.
The study did not focus entirely on the monster, but on the loch's nematodes (of
which a new species was discovered) and fish. Expecting to find a small fish
population, the researchers caught twenty fish in one catch, increasing previous
estimates of the loch's fish population about ninefold.
Using sonar, the team encountered a rare kind of underwater disturbance due
to stored energy (such as from a wind) causing an imbalance between the loch's
warmer and colder layers. While reviewing printouts of the event the next day,
they found what appeared to be three sonar contacts, each followed by a powerful
wake. These events were later shown on a program called Loch Ness Discovered,
in conjunction with analyses and enhancements of the 1960 Dinsdale Film, the
Surgeon's Photo, and the Rines Flipper Photo.
GUST Expedition (2001)
A controversial expedition by the Global Underwater Search Team (GUST) was
conducted with advanced sonar equipment to search for the creature. One night, a
small sonar contact moved on the screen. On another occasion, a vague
disturbance was captured on film.
The expedition was shown on a program called Loch Ness Monster: Search for
Television investigations (2003-4)
In July 2003, the BBC reported on an extensive investigation of Loch Ness by
a BBC team using 600 separate sonar beams to ensure that none of the loch's
waters were missed. The expedition found no trace of a "sea monster" or any
other large animal in the loch. The BBC team concluded that Nessie simply did
The Loch Ness monster phenomenon has seen several attempts to hoax the
public, some of which were very successful. Other hoaxes were revealed rather
quickly by the perpetrators, or exposed after diligent research. A few examples
are mentioned below.
In the 1930s, a big game hunter named Marmaduke Wetherell went to Loch Ness
to look for the Loch Ness Monster. He claimed to have found some footprints but
when the footprints were sent to scientists for analysis, they turned out to be
hippopotamus footprints. A prankster had used a stuffed hippopotamus foot
umbrella stand to make the footprints.
In 2004, a documentary team for Five (primarily consisting of special effects
experts from movies) deliberately tried to make people believe there was
something in the loch. They constructed an elaborate animatronic model. Despite
setbacks, it was a success, and numerous sightings were reported on the day, in
the very places they conducted the hoaxes.
In 2005 two students claimed to have found a huge tooth embedded in the body
of a deer on the loch shore. They publicised the find widely, even setting up a
website, but expert analysis soon revealed that the "tooth" was the antler of a
On June 4, 2007 a British bookmaker William Hill offered a one million pound
reward to anyone who can provide conclusive evidence of Nessie's existence to
the London's Natural History Museum. However, they are confident that such proof
would not be obtained in 2007 and are giving 250-1 odds against such event.
how do you know that. I think the lochness is real.haha
Look. Does it really matter if it exists or not? If it does, it does, if it
doesn't, it doesn't. Let there be some mystery in the world...!
Never mind if it is really real, it makes the world mysterious and interesting to wonder about stuff nessy.
i think that the monster is real by sarah
Loch ness or nessie doesn't exist it was just made up to scare naughty little
Scottish kids that's all - MONSTERS PAHH!
it is real!!
It is just a dinosaur people leave it in peace
hi, My name is Hannah. I think the Loch Ness Monster is real
because I had a dream, and it ate me. Bye!
its a possibility, how can u say its not true when u never
the lochness monster is real and i don't think it eats people
like why hasn't it eaten anyone already but i do know that it ain't no elephant
eel seal or any thing else other then a lochness monster!!. this comment is from
the loch ness monster is not real!!!!!!!!!